Saturday, August 31, 2019

Bacterial Staining

Certain stains can also be used to identify internal structures of the cell, which would otherwise be unseen. Further, in order to use the oil immersion objective of the microscope and thereby obtain the iratest degree of magnification, it is convenient to use stained preparations rather than wet mounts. L Although bacteria do not appear greatly different from their surroundings, they differ chemically. It is this chemical difference that enables us to distinguish bacteria by staining, the stain or dye readily reacting with the bacterial cell but not with the background. Preparation of Smear Before Staining (figure 1) 1. Prepare a clean slide. Put a proper label. 2. Heat your loop to sterilize it. 3. For solid media: 0 Using a sterile inoculating loop, place a 1 or 2 loophole of distilled water on the enter of the slide. 0 Scrape a small amount of the culture off the slant. 0 Smear on the center of the slide, with the distilled water, the scraped material. For liquid media: 0 Make a smear from the broth. You don't have to add water as the bacteria are already suspended in water. Use 2 or 3 loophole of the culture. 0 Spread the culture on the center of the slide. 4. Reheat the loop to clean it. 5. Let the smear dry. – air dry – heat fix- passing the slide through a flame 2 or 3 times Figure 1. Preparation of smear. Classification of Stain Based on Functions 1. Simple Staining Method – In this method one aniline dye is used to stain the organism to be studied. 2. Differential Staining Method – Under this type of classification, the staining method employed divides the microorganism into groups.The Gram's Staining Method and Acid-Fast (Zilch-Nielsen Method) fall under this category. 3. Selective or Special Staining Method – Under this category, parts or portion of the cell are stained differently from the rest of the cell. 4. Indirect Staining Method – Indirect stains are also relief stains because it is the background whi ch takes up the taint, not the organism and the organism are only seem by contrast. 2 Examples of Staining Simple Staining Methods Use only 1 stain. Use to determine cell morphology, size and arrangement.Procedure: a. Make a smear. B. Staining: 1. Place the slide on a staining rack. 2. Flood the smear with several drops of the dye, allow it to remain for the following intervals: – Carbon-fuchsia – 15 to 30 seconds – Methyl Blue – 2 to 5 minutes – Crystal violet – 30 to 45 seconds 3. Carefully wash the excess stain off with distilled water from a wash bottle. Let the water run down the tilted slide. 4. Gently blot the smear with a paper towel or absorbent paper and let it dry. C. View the prepared slide under the microscope. Results and reaction: Reaction / Results Principle Samples of Bacteria All bacteria in smear takes stain Simple stains use basic dyes All types of and appears in color of stain which are positively bacteria. Charged. Thes e positive dyes 0 Shape: interact with the slightly 0 Spherical – coca negatively charged bacterial 0 Rod – bacilli cell wall thus lending the color 0 Arrangement : of the dye to the cell wall. 0 Coca in clusters – staphylococci 0 Coca in chains – thyrotrophic 2. A.Gram's Stains most common technique the gram stain is valid only when performed on young (less than 24 hours old) cultures of bacteria Procedure:l b. Gram staining: Steps Purpose 1. Use a clothespin or slide rack to hold the slide. 3 2. Cover the smear with crystal violet and leave for 30 seconds. 3. Wash the slide carefully with distilled water from a wash bottle. O do not squirt the water directly Primary stain – all bacteria are stained purple. Onto the smear 4. Without drying, cover the smear with Gram's iodine for 30 seconds. 5.Without washing, decolonize with 95% ethyl alcohol. Let the alcohol run through the smear until no large amount of purple wash out. O do not over decolonize 6. Immediately wash with distilled water. 7. Add seafaring for 30 seconds. Mordant – this intensifies the ionic bond between the primary stain and the Primary stain is washed out of some bacteria, while others are unaffected. Secondary stain or countersink – stains the decolonize bacteria red. 8. Wash with distilled water and blot the slide with a paper towel or absorbent paper. Let dry. C. Examine under the microscope. 9.Results: Reactions / Result Gram cell wall are thick and chemically costive (+) simple, composed mainly of 0 purple protein and cross-linked colored minicomputers – alcohol causes dehydration and shrinkage of the gram+ cell wall – reducing the loss of substances such as crystal violet Aggregative (-) 0 pink wall is a thin, complex, multilayered structure containing protein, minicomputers and lipids – when treated with alcohol, the lipid dissolves and the primary stain is wash out Samples of Bacteria Gram positive coca in clusters (figure AAA): Staphylococci species Gram positive bacilli (figure ad): Colostomies species Crematoriums Bacillus anthracicGram negative coca in chains: – Streptococci Gram negative coca (figure 4 – Engineers species Gram negative bacilli (figure c): – Escherichia coli – Kielbasa pneumonia b d Figure 2. Different observations in Gram's Staining. (a)gram+ coca in clusters (b)gram + coca in chains (c)gram- bacilli (d)gram+ bacilli (e)gram- coca. (f)gram stain mixed 5 B. Acid – Fast Stain (Zilch – Nielsen Stain)l ,5 0 to stain Mycobacterium species especially M. Tuberculosis – Contain large amount of fatty waxes (mycology acid) within their cell wall resists staining by ordinary methods 0 Procedure: 1. Flood smear with Carbon Fuchsia Carbon Fuchsia is a lipid soluble, stain. Heinlein compound, which is able to penetrate the cell wall. 2. Cover flooded smear with filter paper 3. Steam for 10 minutes. Add more Carbon Fuchsia stain as needed . 4. Cool slide. 5. Rinse with distilled water. 6. Flood slide with acid alcohol (leave 15 The waxy cell wall then prevents the seconds). The acid alcohol contains stain from being removed by the acid 3% HCI and 95% ethanol or H2O alcohol (decolonize) once it has SIS. Penetrated the cell wall. The acid alcohol decolonize will remove the stain from all other cells. . Tilt slide 45 degrees over the sink and add acid alcohol drop wise (drop by drop) until the red color stops streaming from the smear. 8. Rinse with distilled water

Friday, August 30, 2019

Dementia: Cerebrum and High Blood Pressure

DEMENTIA AWARNESS 1. Understand what dementia is 1. 1 Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia' A syndrome due to disease of the brain, usually of a chronic progressive nature in which there are multiple disturbances of higher cognitive function. These include impairment of memory, thinking and orientation, learning ability, language and judgement. 1. 2 Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia The key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia are the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital, cerebrum lobe and the hippocampus.Temporal lobe- responsible for vision,memory, language, hearing and learning Frontal lobe- responsible for decision making, problem solving, control behaviour and emotions Parietal lobe- responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness. Occipital lobe- responsible for processing information related to vision Cerebrum lobe- i s responsible for for the biggest part of the brain its role is memory, attention, thought and our consciousness, senses and movement.Hippocampus- responsible for memory forming, organizing and storing and emotions 1. 3 Explain why depression, delirium and age-related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Because they both manifest with similar symptoms. Depression coupled with age related memory impairment looks the same as dementia to the untrained eye. The difference is that depression delirium responds to treatment with anti depressants, once you get on top of the depression you can put age related memory loss into perspective.If it is genuine dementia it won't get any better. 2. Understand key features of theoretical models of dementia 2. 1 Outline the medical model of dementia The medical model focuses on the impairment as the problem and focuses on a cure, these may be dependency, restriction of choice, dis empowering and devaluing individuals 2. 2 Outline the social model of dementia This is personal centred, focusing on the rights of the individual, in turn empowering the individual, promoting independence, giving choice and looking at what the individual is able to do. . 3 Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability Individuals who have dementia are not aware of requirements for living, they can forget to do the essential things that are vital. Taking medication,hygiene and even eating are often forgotten. They can get lost or hurt and not understand what is necessary to correct a situation. Individuals cannot act in the manner of a responsible adult which is why dementia should be viewed as a disability 3. Know the most common types of dementia and their causes 3. List the most common causes of dementia Alzheimer disease This is the most common cause of dementia, during the course of the disease the chemistry and structure of the brain changes, leading to the death of brain cells. Vascular dementia If the oxygen supply to the brai n fails, brain cells may die, this can happen from a strokes or over time through series of small strokes Lewy body disease This form of dementia gets its name from tiny spherical structures that develop inside nerve cells, there presence in the brain cells leads to the degeneration of brain tissue. . 2 Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia Alzheimer's disease is a progressive condition, symptoms include minor memory problems, difficulty saying the right words, disorientation personality changes and behavioural changes Vascular dementia may develop suddenly and quickly, symptoms include memory loss depression, visual hallucinations, low attention span and periods of mental confusion.Lewy bodies develop gradually and gets more severe over the years, symptoms include memory loss, visual hallucinations, delusions, muscle stiffness. 3. 3 Outline the risk factor's for the most common causes of dementia The risk factor's for Alzeheimers is age, famil y history and genes Vascular dementia is increasing age, history of heart attacks, strokes or mini strokes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes Lewy bodies is advanced age, it appears to affect more men than women, having a family member who's had it and a unhealthy lifestyle 3. Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia The established prevalence rates for different types of dementia are 40-64yrs 1 in 1400 65-69yrs 1 in 100 70-79yrs 1 in 25 80+ 1 in 6 4. Understand factors relating to an individuals experience of dementia 4. 1 Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, type of dementia, and level of ability and disability Depending on the form of dementia people's ability and disability will be different. People with ementia may not necessarily always be forgetful, their memory may remain intact but their personality and behaviour could be noticeably changed. However the level of ability and disability depe nds on an individuals age and condition of dementia, people who are living with dementia in earlier age such as 60's-70's are less likely to be as dependable on others than people living with dementia at the age of over their 70's-80's. People also have different levels of stamina at different ages so their ability and disability may vary and the level of support they require will be varied as well. . 2 Outline the impact that the attitudes and behaviours of others may have on an individual with dementia People who suffer from dementia can feel excluded if people aren’t giving them enough time to finish there conservation or tasks, which can lead them to being treated differently and can cause more illness such has anger, depression and frustration , so therefore there is good combination of general awareness of the existence of dementia but poor detailed understanding of its causes, progression and implications tends to lead to inaccurate assumptions.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) - Coursework Example File Movement System module is used for the automation of file movement within the different departments of the institution; the system introduces transparency in organizations where there is high generation of files. E-Tendering module facilitates the completion of the tendering process through the advertisement of the requirements and signing or the finalization of the contract; the relevant documents are exchanged in electronic format. Admission, Academics and Examination (AAE) module covers the entire academic cycle (registration, admission, exams, regular attendance, results, and the issuance of certificates or degrees) of the student and it assists the university to utilize maximally its resources (such as support staff and academicians) (University ERP, 2009). Financial Accounting System module is concerned with all finance related aspects of the organization such as expenses, income, and bank and cash related transactions based on the different types of fund. The Human Resource Management System (HRMS) module offers Business Line Managers, Employees and HR Staff Managers collaboration and the ability to manage their responsibilities in an effective manner based on the organizational objectives and goals (University ERP, 2009). The implementation of the ERP system in SU is likely to affect a number of business processes. The management of the university finances (financial accounting and budgeting) will be affected by the Financial Accounting System module, tendering will be affected by e-Tendering module, and the process of recruitment, appraisal, training, performance management, and compensation of the employees will be affected by HRMS module. Since the ERP system is web based, the cost of implementing and maintaining is expected to be low. However, the implementation and maintenance of the ERP system has to be budgeted for. The implementation of the university ERP will improve and expand

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Seminar Public health Unit1 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Seminar Public health Unit1 - Research Paper Example Nowadays, there are many problems arising in Public Health that needs to be addressed. Public Health developed many techniques for defining and circumscribing a governable terrain, for example in the form of reports, pictures, numbers, charts, graphs, statistics, etc. that soon later develop in the form of seminars (Rose & Miller, 1992, p. 185). Public Health is composed of Public Health workforce who is both large and diverse. The review singled out the role of chairs, leaders, local government, together with chief executives, directors of public health and others working at director level are the one who conducted Public Health Seminar to strengthen the public health function (Department of Health, 2001, p.6). WHO, other specialized agencies and the UN provide technical and consultative services in connection with UNICEF- assisted projects at the planning stage, during the implementation of the projects and in evaluation of results. Public Health Seminar (University of Dakar, Senegal). UNICEF contributed $40,000 in 1962 to public health seminars held in 1963 & 1964. A seminar on health and nutrition and education of the public was held in Congo (Brazzaville) for 67 participants from 12 countries. Ad to higher level of training concerned with production and consumption of a well-balanced food supply for the family (Cannan, 1966, p.64) The Regional Director of Public Health highlighted male health needs and that something should be done to address. This resulted first, in a day-long regional men’s health seminar held in December 1995 for health authority representatives. There was a mixed representation from authorities across the region. In order to try, to identify strategic policy development at health authority level within the West Midlands following the consultancy input, attempts were made to contact all health authorities that sent representatives to the regional seminar in 1995 (Bamford & Luck, 2000, p.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Sociology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sociology - Assignment Example Knowledge of sociology also helps the career pursuer. One pursuing a career, regardless of the career field, should be aware of how humans interact. This is true since almost every career goal requires a certain type of human interactions. Positive human interaction can mean a successful career. Every individual has their own political and economic philosophies. These philosophies are important to consider. Sociology teaches how others make decisions. Becoming a dental hygienist involves the use of economic decisions. One may choose to become a dental hygienist for the income level. The income level of a dental hygienist allows the one pursuing the career to reach a mid income level and become a part of the sociological class of individuals that receive moderate income. Individuals in a mid class income level are not considered wealthy but have plenty of money to get by and take care of a family. These individuals also are likely to share similar political beliefs since they will sha re the same struggles. Learning sociology has helped to learn which career goals will bring in certain income levels and which groups of people are associated with certain income levels. Although not everyone is the same, knowledge of sociology helps create an image of certain classes of individuals.

Monday, August 26, 2019

(i dont know ,writer will firgure out the topic for me) Research Paper

(i dont know ,writer will firgure out the topic for me) - Research Paper Example If one would go to the top floor of the Bank of America tower overlooking the park, the once capacious area below becomes cramped, as people move like ants in the limited space left. Yet people continue to engage in their own activities, oblivious of their compromised surroundings. For as long they are able to carry out their purpose in the place, all the rest remain strangers to them – never mind, if they are already literally rubbing elbows with one another. Nevertheless, this is typical in the urban land. While those who are used to living in the countryside may find this situation suffocating, it is quite astounding how city dwellers seem to have adopted survival strategies to cope with the continuously crowding area, as though they do not need space. Going back, an imaginary view of the Bryant Park on top of Bank of America tower creates a vivid and lively scene where stories are formed. Perhaps, in one of the couches in the Southwest Porch, there may be a woman who would say, â€Å"I just need space†, a typical spiel when two people are in the brink of breaking up. This line serves as an easy way to warrant the ending of a relationship, especially if the individual, for some reason, desires to get freed from whatever attachment – may it be physical or emotional. Although it may be an effective way out, there seems to be more to ‘needing space’ aside from a reasonable means to end a relationship. While the literal meaning of a space is a spot left empty, it remains to be related to its figurative definition such that the space between individuals actually separates them, limiting their social interaction and attachment. Yet for a place like Bryant Park, keeping a space seems impossible. But perhaps, the city dwellers’ concept of space has indeed gone beyond just a simple matter of geography. Introduction The innovation of the concept of space probably roots to the time of Edward T. Hall, an anthropologist whose fiel d of interest and expertise centers on spacing behavior of individuals. Hall identified several terms related to space – most notable of which is the social space. By definition, social space is such which individuals feel comfortable enough to engage in occasional social interactions with friends and strangers. Moreover, Hall proposed that people have an unconscious perception of space which can be manifested by the way that they behave towards it and the people that they are sharing the physical space with. This behavior is largely based on the culture from which an individual belongs. As such, â€Å"public space always becomes cultural space† (Ferrell 14). Meanwhile, as a result of this proposed concept, social space has become a subject of studies for many years. Generally, these studies were geared towards simply finding out why this space exists and how it is manifested. Based on the findings, it is surprising that several factors actually account for what was on ce seen a simple yet perplexing matter. The present research also attempted to explore many aspects of this ambiguous concept; however, in the context of urban settings where crowding is inevitable and violation of physical space is likewise expected. It may be assumed that spacing behaviors could only be maintained in low-density situations when there is a small number people who can act on their respective assumed space. But then again, given the limited physical space in the urban area, the social concept of physical space

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Reading response-GAY MARRIAGE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reading response-GAY MARRIAGE - Essay Example On the contrary, 2013 polls had found that 52% of Texans had favored same sex marriage in other states while only 47.9% supported same marriage equality in their state. Finally, it appears that the Texans are crowding traditionalist ideas and giving in to accepting gay couples the right to marry. The article would be a good source for a long research paper about legal gay marriage because it portrays how the society has changed from traditionalist to being open minded. This paper warrants further research not only in the United States but globally at large. This is because gay marriage has become a cultural battle. However, in my own opinion, the bible condemns same sex marriage because it defies the law of nature that God wanted for mankind. On the contrary, banning gay marriage is a violation to those who engage in it. Furthermore, banning gay couple’s marriage, does not translate that the act will disappear forever, but, it will always happen secretly. Moreover, I think banning will even provoke more people to engage in homosexuality and lesbianism.s In conclusion, the article is critical to the issue of legal gay marriage in Texas. However, Judge Garcia issues a preliminary injunction awaiting for the high court to hear the case and give its verdict. On the other hand, the article is to the point and can warrant further research in gay marriage controversial issue. Finally, the nation at large should handle the issue and a decision made on a national level rather than on a state level. Lapidos, Juliet. "Gay Marriage: Soon Available in Texas." 2014. Web. 3 Mar 2014.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Why did Qatar Win the FIFA World Cup IN 2022 Essay

Why did Qatar Win the FIFA World Cup IN 2022 - Essay Example The pinnacle of this beautiful game is the FIFA World Cup, which is held once every four years. As billions of people love this game, it is not easy for a country to win the hosting rights of a FIFA World Cup. It happens so rarely that many people only get to see the FIFA World Cup played on their home soil once during their lifetimes. To decide which country has the right to play at a world cup, all of the countries play qualifying matches against each other in the preceding three years. From this, thirty-two teams get to go and play in the greatest show on earth. Qatar has a developing interest in football because of its popularity among its youth. Football is just one of the things that Qatar is trying to use to expose itself on the world’s stage. Because of its vast wealth, the Qatari government has the objective of getting as many people as possible to learn about Qatar. This is done through festivals, scientific  conferences, and sporting festivals, of which the FIFA W orld Cup is the most prestigious. It is very clear that not just any country can win the hosting rights of the FIFA World Cup. FIFA has very strict criteria that potential host countries must abide by in order to be able to host the cup. Whenever a world cup is hosted, FIFA demands that its laws must override any local laws. This has proved to be a problem with the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. The FIFA secretary general, Jerome Valcke, has recently said: â€Å"Either we do (the Cup) together or we will never manage it (Murphy, 2011). Some of these requests include the price of match tickets, penalties for counterfeit goods, and banning the sale of certain alcohol brands in the stadiums. Also, because of the magnitude of the event, the country that wins the hosting rights must provide adequate security  for all the players and fans. Hospitals, hotels, and food are some of the major logistical requirements that need to be taken care of. Because the aim of the event is to make as much money for football as possible, the host country is required to have a certain number of large stadia so that revenue from ticket sales will be high. One of the goals of FIFA is to publicize football all around would and to assist poorer countries that rarely get the chance to participate in such an event. FIFA thinks of football as a global game, and that is why it wants to take the game to new places. Every region  of the world  has already  organized  the FIFA World Cup at least once. The Middle East is the last major region yet to have hosted FIFA’s most prestigious event. Quite a few people predicted that it would be too difficult for Qatar to win the hosting rights for the FIFA World Cup compared to the rival bids of the United States of America and Australia. There were many reasons why this was thought to be so. First of all, Qatar is a hot country. FIFA has a limit on what heat is considered to be okay to play football in, and Qatar’s climate is w ell above this range (Marcus, 2010). Also, geographical area  of  Qatar is very small when compared with other large countries. In addition, the Middle East is not considered to be a safe place for tourists. Many Western governments warn their citizens who travel in the region simply because of the level of violence that is associated with the area. The latest political protests in countries such as Syria, Egypt, and Libya have shown that things can get out of hand very quickly. On the other hand, the Qatari government used this disadvantage and pleaded that the FIFA World Cup could help to unite the divided region. Also, to alleviate foreign concerns, the Qatari bid team promised to install air

Public policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Public policy - Essay Example But they are a happy and hospitable people. It is a common public policy to smile and be hospitable to any foreigner who comes in and visit one of their islands. The Filipinos are proud of their race. They smile when they see a tourist: that’s tourism policy number one. Tourism has been a flourishing industry in the Philippines and an attractive business venture because of its beautiful scenic spots, baroque churches, white beaches and various heritage sites, a legacy of the hundreds of years of Spanish colonization, and subsequently the American colonization which led to the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. However, the Philippine tourism industry has passed through various stages of decay and then development. If public policies had been enforced to the letter, the Philippines could have been the number one tourist destination in Asia because of its rich heritage, historic spots, rich natural resources, and a hospitable people willing to receive any guests who have entered into their shore lines. Tourism was used for political purposes during the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. Tourism policies during Marcos’s time were concentrated on government efforts to gain support from foreign governments, especially during the period when he declared martial law. There was no popular support or cooperation from the local community who had mixed feelings of fear, hatred and remorse over the dictatorship. Human rights violations were rampant. Resorts, hotels and other business establishments were owned by Marcos ‘cronies’. Rebel groups started to surface, and there almost anarchy in the streets. People power led by Corazon Aquino, wife of the martyred opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. led to the toppling of the dictatorship. Tourism was totally down at that time. (Gray, 2008, p. 369) When the dictator Marcos was overthrown by a people-power revolt, Corazon ‘Cory’ Aquino took over, and once again, her government used